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Exceptional Children Research: Meta-Analysis and Literature Reviews

Meta-Analysis and Literature Reviews



Gold, C., Wigram, T., & Voracek, M. (2004).

Article Number: MTA1
Author: Gold, C., Wigram, T., & Voracek, M.
Title: Effects of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology: a meta-analysis.
Reference: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 45(6), 1054-1063.
Abstract: The objectives of this review were to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology, and to examine how the size of the effect of music therapy is influenced by the type of pathology, client's age, music therapy approach, and type of outcome. Eleven studies were included for analysis, which resulted in a total of 188 subjects for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes from these studies were combined, with weighting for sample size, and their distribution was examined. After exclusion of an extreme positive outlying value, the analysis revealed that music therapy has a medium to large positive effect (ES = .61) on clinically relevant outcomes that was statistically highly significant ( p < .001) and statistically homogeneous. No evidence of a publication bias was identified. Effects tended to be greater for behavioural and developmental disorders than for emotional disorders; greater for eclectic, psychodynamic, and humanistic approaches than for behavioural models; and greater for behavioural and developmental outcomes than for social skills and self-concept. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.
Document type: Feature
Topics: Music therapy for children; Behavior disorders in children; Self-perception; Psychology, pathological; Adolescents
Durable URL:
Database: Academic Search Premier

Gold, C., Wigram, T., & Voracek, M. (2007).

Article Number: MTA2
Author:Gold, C., Wigram, T., & Voracek, M.
Title: Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: The role of therapeutic techniques.
Reference: Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice; Dec 2007, Vol. 80 Issue 4, p577-589
Abstract: Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N = 75) were assessed before and after participating in individual music therapy with 1 out of 15 music therapists in the Vienna region. Relationships between outcomes (as evaluated by parents) and therapy contents (as reported by therapists) were examined using general linear modelling. Results indicated that clients' symptoms and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware of a therapy method's specific strengths and limitations. More research on the indicated specific ingredients of music therapy intervention is needed.
Document type: Feature
Topics: Child psychotherapy; Psychotherapy -- Outcome assessment; Social context; Play therapy music therapy
Publisher: British Psychological Society
ISSN: 1476-0835
Durable URL:
Database: Academic Search Premier


Standley, J. (2008).

Authors: Standley, Jayne M.
Title: Does Music Instruction Help Children Learn to Read? Evidence of a Meta-Analysis.
Reference: Applications of Research in Music Education; Fall/Winter2008, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p17-32, 16p, 3 Charts
Subject Terms: MUSIC -- Instruction & study; MUSIC & children; CHILDREN; READING; EDUCATION.
Abstract: The article presents information on a study which assessed the effects of music activities on reading skills of children in the U.S., specifically those measuring visual decoding ability. The meta-analysis on experimental research also identifies research-based implications for designing No Child Left Behind instructional programs facilitated by music. The research also attempts to identify benefits of various modes, schedules, and designs of music instruction for children. It also recommends future research in music and reading.
ISSN: 87551233
Accession Number: 34655940
Full Text URL:
Database: Music Index
Full Text Database: Academic Search Premier