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Music Therapy: Citing Sources

Resources for Music Therapy Students

APA citation and Style Guides

Quick examples of APA citation style:

Kahn, A. (2000). Kind of Blue. New York: Da Capo.

Anthology/Book Collection:
Burkholder, P. J., & Palisca, C. V. (Eds.). (2006). Norton Anthology of Western Music (5th ed., Vol. 1). New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Journal Article from an Online Database:
Takahashi, T. (2006, Winter). Long-Term Effects of Music Therapy on Elderly with Dementia. Journal of Music Therapy, 43(4), 317-333. Retrieved August 16, 2007, from International Index to Music Periodicals database. (00507167)

Run-D.M.C. (1986). Walk this way. On Raising hell [CD]. New York: Profile.

Moretti, E. & Alvi, S. (Producers). (2008). Heavy metal in Baghdad [DVD]. New York: Arts Alliance America.

Website sources:
Powers, A. (2011, August 11). Country’s New Guard Gets Back to Basics. National Public Radio. Retrieved from

Additional Sources and Tools for Citation


Citation management software is useful for organizing  references and creating bibliographies. There are many citation programs available, each with its own strengths. Many are available free or at a small cost including EndNoteZotero, and Mendeley
Students may also consider using a free citation generator, if a website does not offer a citation button or you're using a physical resource. Popular generators are EasyBibBibMe, and NoodleTools Express.