This guide includes resources to help you with how to cite your sources when writing papers, giving a presentation, or other project that require you to reference other works.
Citations: Information about an outside source to give the authors credit. It helps your readers locate the source and avoid plagiarism. A citation can include several elements depending on the format of the source. Some of these include author name(s), dates, publisher information, publication name, page numbers, and any other elements that are important for identifying and locating the source.
Citation Style: A particular set of rules for what to include in a citation and how to format it. Popular citation styles include:
MLA (Modern Language Association) -- used by the humanities
APA (American Psychological Association) -- used in education, psychology, and the sciences
Chicago/Turabian -- used in business, history, and the fine arts
Some of our database vendors integrate their own citation generators.
Kahn, Ashley. Kind of Blue. New York: Da Capo, 2000. Print.
Burkholder, Peter J. and Claude V. Palisca, eds. Norton Anthology of Western Music. 5th ed. Vol. 1. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. Print.
Journal Article from an Online Database:
Takahashi, Takiko. "Long-Term Effects of Music Therapy on Elderly with Moderate/Severe Dementia." Journal of Music Therapy 43.4 (Winter 2006): 317-333. International Index to Music Periodicals. Web. 16 Aug. 2007.
Run-D.M.C. "Walk This Way." Raising Hell. Profile, 1986. CD.
Heavy metal in Baghdad. Dir. Eddy Moretti and Suroosh Alvi. Feat. Acrassicauda. Arts Alliance America, 2008. Film.
Powers, Ann. “Country’s New Guard Gets Back to Basics.” NPR.org. National Public Radio, 11 August, 2011. Web. 17 August 2011.
Kahn, A. (2000). Kind of Blue. New York: Da Capo.
Burkholder, P. J., & Palisca, C. V. (Eds.). (2006). Norton Anthology of Western Music (5th ed., Vol. 1). New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Journal Article from an Online Database:
Takahashi, T. (2006, Winter). Long-Term Effects of Music Therapy on Elderly with Dementia. Journal of Music Therapy, 43(4), 317-333. Retrieved August 16, 2007, from International Index to Music Periodicals database. (00507167)
Run-D.M.C. (1986). Walk this way. On Raising hell [CD]. New York: Profile.
Moretti, E. & Alvi, S. (Producers). (2008). Heavy metal in Baghdad [DVD]. New York: Arts Alliance America.
APA Citations Style Guide: Links and instruction on APA style from California State University Stanislaus.
Kahn, Ashley. Kind of Blue. New York: Da Capo, 2000.
Burkholder, J. Peter, and Claude V. Palisca, eds. Norton Anthology of Western Music. 5th ed. Vol. 1. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.
Takahashi, Takiko. "Long-Term Effects of Music Therapy on Elderly with Moderate/Severe Dementia." Journal of Music Therapy 43, no. 4 (2006): 317-317-333. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1097403?accountid=8581.
Run-D.M.C. “Walk this way.” Raising hell. Profile, PCD-1217. Compact disc.
Acrassicauda. Heavy metal in Baghdad, DVD. Directed by Eddy Moretti and Suroosh Alvi. New York: Arts Alliance America, 2008.
Powers, Ann. “Country’s New Guard Gets Back to Basics.” National Public Radio, August 11, 2011. http://www.npr.org/blogs/therecord/2011/08/11/139421156/countrys-new-guard-gets-back-to-basics (accessed August 17, 2011)
Citation managers are helpful research tools for storing and organizing articles, images, and other resources you want to save or cite. Here are a few popular citation managers. Contact a librarian if you would like a consultation on choosing or using a tool.
- browser plugins that automatically detect resources/citations and saves them to a personal library
- desktop/mobile applications that provide an interface to organize files and some include PDF readers with annotation features
- word processor plugins that enable automatic formatting of in-text citations and bibliographies
- collaboration features to discover and share resources with research groups and colleagues
Zotero is a free, open-source research tool that helps you collect, organize, and analyze research and share it in a variety of ways. Zotero interacts with online resources: when it senses you are viewing a book, article, or other object on the web, it can automatically extract and save complete bibliographic references.
Download the desktop app and browser plugin here: https://www.zotero.org/download/
Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research.
Free, limited online version of EndNote for basic research and writing.